Orthognathic surgery comprises of surgeries of the jaws, performed by the maxillofacial surgeon. The surgeries are performed if the malocclusion is present. During such the surgery, one or both jaws are placed in a new position, which ensures the correct internecine relation between the jaws and an opportunity to create a correct occlusion in the course of the orthodontic treatment. Moreover, once the jaws are moved back or forth, up or down, soft facial tissues also move along with them, i. e. chin, lips, cheeks, and end of the nose, the height of the face changes even. So, once the jaw is placed in a correct position, the facial profile becomes straight, and a harmony of the new facial features occurs.
The orthognathic treatment lasts for about 2 years, in cooperation with the doctor orthodontist.
Causes of the malocclusion:
- Could be genetically inherited
- Could occur due to environmental factors – deciduous teeth lost too soon per, incorrect breathing, etc.
- Due to size mismatch between the maxilla and mandible, or due to their incorrect relation
- Due to the incorrect position of the teeth (crooked, slanted teeth)
- Due to lack of space in the dental arch (crowded teeth)
- Due to the non-standard shape and size of the dental arches
Where should a patient turn to solve the above-listed problems?
The patient can turn to the doctor orthodontist for the initial consultation. After assessing the patient’s dental situation, occlusion, and size of the jaws, the doctor decides if only orthodontic treatment is enough, or additional surgical treatment is necessary. If it is a severe case, then the doctor orthodontist refers the patient for consultation with a maxillofacial surgeon.
Why is it necessary to treat malocclusion?
- In the case of malocclusion, the tissues surrounding the tooth are lesioned while chewing the food, and inflammation occurs, the bone starts thinning.
- As the bone thins, the mobility of teeth increases, gaps between the teeth could occur
- If the teeth are in the incorrect position, dental plaque begins accumulating rapidly and provoke inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth; then caries damages the teeth
- Malocclusion can create lesions in the temporomandibular joint due to overload
- Patient’s expectations – a delightful smile and aesthetic appearance.
When is orthodontic treatment applied?
- It is critically important to notice incorrect growth of jaws in children aged from 9 to 13 years old because precisely at this age, it is possible to correct the situation through the application of functional orthodontic apparatuses. The treatment lasts for approximately one and a half years.
- For patients older than 13 years of age, orthodontic plates or systems of braces are applied during the orthodontic treatment. The duration of the treatment period is from 1 to 2 years.
- There are no age-related limitations for orthodontic treatment; however, orthodontic treatment of older persons could be more complicated and last longer. As the years go by, resorption of bone tissue occurs, which makes orthodontic treatment impossible in such a case. The treatment lasts from 1 to 3 years.
When is surgical treatment applied?
Not all orthodontic anomalies can be treated orthodontically; therefore, surgical treatment is necessary. Orthognathic surgeries can be performed to patients who are 18 years old or older. The treatment lasts from 2 to 3 years, in cooperation with doctor orthodontist.
When should the patient turn to the maxillofacial surgeon?
- Orthognathic surgeries can be performed to 18 years-old patients, so, if there are any occlusion-related problems, it is necessary to turn to doctor orthodontist. If orthodontic treatment is not enough, then it is necessary to wait until the child reached the age of 18, and preparation for orthognathic treatment should commence.
- If the patient is 18 years old, and the position of his/her jaws is incorrect, if there is any difficulty when chewing food, or if the patient feels that something is wrong with his/her face, then one must immediately contact the maxillofacial surgeon.
- If by reaching 18 years of age, the patient will turn to doctor orthodontist, and it will turn out that our case is exceptionally complicated, and orthodontic treatment will not be enough, the orthodontist will refer the patient to a maxillofacial surgeon.